Protected Species

World Wildlife Day - March 3rd

Green Heron, Spittal Pond

Green Heron, Spittal Pond

On Monday, March 3rd 2014, the UN will mark its first World Wildlife Day to recognise global efforts to halt wildlife trafficking. 

Why not celebrate by visiting our Bermuda Species Page to see some of our beautiful Bermudian wildlife, or read our tips on how to attract wildlife to your garden?

Happy World Wildlife Day!

Cahow Population Reaches 101 pairs for the first time since the 1600's

First cahow of 2011

First cahow of 2011

The Department of Conservation Services today (March 22, 2012) is pleased to announce that for the first time since its rediscovery in 1951 the population of Bermuda’s National Bird, the critically endangered Cahow (Pterodroma cahow), has passed the landmark number of 101 nesting pairs. A fitting milestone to celebrate Bermuda’s 400th anniversary of colonization.

Abundant when Bermuda was first discovered, the ground burrowing Cahow was quickly decimated by introduced predators such as rats, pigs, dogs and cats, and hunting by the early settlers. During a major famine in 1621 Governor Moore sent one hundred and fifty of the most weak and sick settlers “to Cooper’s Isle, where were such infinite numbers of the birds called "Cahowes", which were so fearless, they might take as many as they would…they so much consumed and wasted by carelessness and surfeiting, many of them (settlers) died ” from over indulgence.  The Cahow soon disappeared from the historic records and it was thought to have become extinct. In 1951 the Cahow was miraculously rediscovered on several small rocky islets but the entire population consisted of only 18 nesting pairs, with the entire population only producing 7 to 8 chicks annually.

For the last 50 years the Cahow Recovery Program has been one of Bermuda’s priority protected species projects. Now managed by the Terrestrial Conservation Section of the Department of Conservation Services the team works hard to control predators, build artificial nest burrows, and carry out research to better understand the Cahow and enable it to recover. With this assistance the Cahow continues to move towards becoming a self sustaining population. Last year the Cahow increased to 98 nesting pairs producing a record 56 fledged chicks. The 101 nesting pair mark was met this year illustrating that the species continues to move from strength to strength. 

Jeremy Madeiros (Senior Terrestrial Conservation Officer) reports that “the Recovery Program has reached a critical milestone, but the ultimate objective is to increase the number of nesting Cahows to at least 1000 nesting pairs. That is the only point at which it can be down-listed from “critically endangered” to “threatened”. 1000 pairs is still a small number for the entire planet, as the Cahow is completely endemic or unique to Bermuda, nesting no-where else on Earth.”

Protected Species Act Amendments

The commencement notice for the Protected Species Amendment Act 2011 appeared in the official gazette (the Bermuda Sun) on Friday January 20th. This means that the act is now in force. The amended Protected Species Order 2012 also appeared. The Order provides the list of species to which the Act applies. Both notices can be read below. For more information on the species, please read our Protected Species Page.





BR 6/ 2012

The Minister responsible for conservation services, in exercise of the power conferred by section 9 of the Protected Species Amendment Act 2011, gives the following Notice:


1 This Notice may be cited as the Protected Species Amendment Act 2011 Commencement Day Notice 2012.


2 The Protected Species Amendment Act 2011 shall come into operation on 20 January 2012.

Made this 17th day of January 2012

Minister of Public Works



BR 7/ 2012

The Minister responsible for conservation services, in exercise of the power conferred by sections 5 and 5A of the Protected Species Act 2003, makes the following Order:


1 This Order may be cited as the Protected Species Order 2012.

Protected species

2 The species of plants and animals set out in the Schedule to this Order are classified as critically endangered, endangered or vulnerable in accordance with the criteria set out in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN) and are declared to be protected species.

Level of protection

3 The species of plants and animals set out in the Schedule to this Order are classified as level 1, level 2 or level 3 in accordance with the criteria set out in section 5A of, and the Schedule to, the Protected Species Act 2003.


4 The Protected Species Order 2007 and the Protected Species Notice of Intention 2011 are revoked.


(paragraph 2 and 3)



Bermuda Petrel or Cahow (Pterodroma cahow) (E) EN (D)

White-tailed Tropic Bird (Phaethon lepturus catesbyi) (N) VU (D1 + 2)

White-eyed Vireo or Chick-of-the-Village (Vireo griseus

bermudianus) (E) VU (D1 + 2)

Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) (N) VU

Green Heron (Butorides virescens) (N) VU

Cave Amphipods

Idunella sketi (E) CR (B1 + 2C)

Cocoharpinia iliffei (E) CR (B1 + 2C)

Pseudoniphargus grandimanus (E) CR (B1 + 2C)

Bermudagidiella bermudensis (E) CR (B1 + 2C)

Ingolfiella longipes (E) CR (B1 + 2C)

Cave Copepods

Antriscopia prehensilis (E) CR (B1 + 2C)

Erebonectes nesioticus (E) CR (B1 + 2C)

Paracyclopia naessi (E) CR (B1 + 2C)

Speleophria bivexilla (E) CR (B1 + 2C)

Speleophriopsis scottodicarloi (E) CR (B1 + 2C)

Nanocopia minuta (E) CR (B1 + 2C)

Speleoithona bermudensis (E) CR (B1 + 2C)

Cave Isopods

Atlantasellus cavernicolus (E) CR (B1 + 2C)

Currassanthura bermudensis (E) CR (B1 + 2C)

Arubolana aruboides (E) CR (B1 + 2C)

Cave Mysids

Platyops sterreri (E) CR (B1 + 2C)

Cave Ostracods

Spelaeoecia bermudensis (E) CR (B1 + 2C)

Cave Mictaceans

Mictocaris halope (E) CR (B1 + 2C)

Segmented Worms

Phallodriloides macmasterae (E) CR (B1 + 2C)

Cave Shrimps

Typhlatya iliffei (E) CR (B1 + 2C)

Procaris chacei (E) CR (B1 + 2C)

Barbouria cubensis (N) CR (B1 + 2C)

Parhippolyte sterreri (N) CR (B1 + 2C)


Governor Laffan’s Fern (Diplazium laffanianum) (E) CR (D)

Bermuda Shield Fern (Goniopteris bermudiana) (E) CR (B2)

Bermuda Cave Fern (Ctenitis sloanei) (N) CR (B1)

Long Spleenwort (Asplenium heterochroum) (N) EN (C2a)

Toothed Spleenwort (Asplenium dentatum) (N) EN (B1a, b)

Ten-day or Leatherleaf Fern (Rumohra adiantiformis) (N) CR (D)


Longsnout Seahorse (Hippocampus reidi) (N) VU (D)

Lined Seahorse (Hippocampus erectus) (N) VU (A4c, d)

Gag (Mycteroperca microlepis) (N) VU (A1b, d + 2d)

Tiger Grouper (Mycteroperca tigris) (N) EN (A1d)

Mutton Hamlet (Alphestes afer) (N) CR (A1d)

Nassau Grouper (Epinephelus striatus) (N) EN (A2a, d)

Snowy Grouper (Epinephelus niveatus) (N) VU (A1d + 2d, B1 + 2e)

Freshwater Molluscs

Ancylus bermudensis (E) CR (D)

Pisidium volutabundum (E) CR (D)

Land Crabs

Land Hermit Crab (Coenobita clypeatus) (N) VU

Giant Land Crab (Cardisoma guanhumi) (N) VU

Marine Mammals

Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) (N) VU

Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) (N) VU (A1d)

Marine Molluscs

Queen Conch (Strombus gigas) (N) EN (B2a, biii)


Bermuda Campylopus (Campylopus bermudianus) (E) CR (C)

Rays and Skates

Spotted Eagle Ray (Aetobatus narinari) (N) VU (A2d)


Bermuda Skink (Eumeces longirostris) (E) CR (B1, B2b, c, d, e)

Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) (N) EN (A1b, d)

Hawksbill Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) (N) CR (A1b, d)

Loggerhead Turtle (Caretta caretta) (N) EN (A1a, b, d)

Leatherback Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) (N) CR (A1a, b, d)


Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus) (N) VU (A1b, d + 2d)

Terrestrial Snail

Poecilozonites circumfirmatus (E) CR (A2, B2a)



Bermuda Killifish (Fundulus bermudae) (E) EN

Killifish (Fundulus relictus) (E) EN

American Eel (Anguilla rostrata) (N) VU

European Eel (Anguilla anguilla) (N) CR (A2bd + 4bd)

Flowering Plants

Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) (N) VU

Black Mangrove (Avicennia germinans) (N) VU

Yellow Wood Tree (Zanthoxylum flavum) (N) CR

Marine Molluscs

Bermuda Sand Scallop (Euvola ziczac) (N) EN

Calico Scallop (Argopecten gibbus) (N) EN

Marine Plants

Turtle Grass (Thalassia testudinum) (N) VU

Manatee Grass (Syringodium filiforme) (N) VU

Shoal Grass (Halodule sp.) (N) VU

Shoal Grass (Halodule bermudensis) (E) CR

Paddle Grass (Halophila decipiens) (N) VU


Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) (N) VU


Flowering Plants

Bermuda Sedge (Carex bermudiana) (E) CR

Wild Bermuda Pepper (Peperomia septentrionalis) (E) CR

Wild Bermuda Bean (Phaseolus lignosus) (E) CR

Darrell’s Fleabane (Erigeron darrelliannus) (E) VU

Bermuda Bedstraw (Galium bermudense) (N) EN

St. Andrew’s Cross (Hypericum hypericoides) (N) CR

Bermuda Snowberry (Chiococca alba) (N) VU

Bermuda Cedar (Juniperus bermudiana) (E) VU

Bermuda Palmetto (Sabal bermudana) (E) VU

Bermuda Olivewood (Cassine laneana) (E) VU


CR= Critically Endangered

EN= Endangered

VU= Vulnerable

(E)= Endemic, only found in Bermuda

(N)= Native, indigenous to Bermuda and other places

Made this 17th day of January 2012

Minister of Public Works


Increased penalties for harming Bermuda's protected species

Today, Bermuda's House of Assembly passed amendments to the Protected Species Act that will increase penalties for harming Bermuda's protected species. The changes include a new maximum of a $25,000 fine or two years imprisonment for offenses related to species falling under the Category 1 classification, which include the Cahow, Spotted Eagle Ray, Bermuda Skink and the Green Turtle

For the full Minister's statement please go to the article found in BerNews